Using Block-encoding matrices for data input to speed up Algorithms

H Hannan

Using Block-encoding matrices for data input to speed up Algorithms
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By developing specialized quantum circuits that simplify loading in structured matrices, this research significantly reduces the data input bottlenecks that currently dominate the runtimes of quantum algorithms, thus allowing more of the available quantum processing power to focus on useful computation – this breakthrough in streamlining data handling represents a major stride towards unleashing the real-world potential of quantum computing to deliver transformative speedups across optimization, simulation, machine learning, and other practical domains.

Quantum algorithms promise to deliver exponential speedups over classical approaches for problems spanning optimization, simulation, and machine learning. However, despite their vast potential, quantum algorithms often face major bottlenecks in practice related to loading the data needed to fuel these algorithms. In particular, encoding structured data such as matrices into quantum-compatible formats can dominate the runtimes of quantum algorithms, overshadowing the processing gains.

This paper provides an innovative solution by introducing specialized encoding circuits that are designed to work with the inherent structure and patterns in certain matrix data types. For instance, the proposed methods exploit repetition and symmetry in Toeplitz and Hermitian matrices to simplify the encoding process into a more efficient quantum format. This allows the same data to be uploaded using 10-100x fewer quantum gate operations compared to naive encoding approaches that treat all matrices as general dense or sparse data.

By alleviating the costly input leg of loading structured matrices into quantum states ready for manipulation, the enhanced encoding techniques free up a substantially larger portion of the available quantum processing power for the actual computation. Hence, the algorithms can focus more of their circuit depth on delivering quantum advantages during the optimization or analysis. Reducing this data bottleneck unlocks the true promise of quantum machine learning, quantum simulation, quantum finance models, and other cutting-edge applications.

Furthermore, the research explores progressive encoding schemes that first upload a rough representation of the matrix which gets refined in later stages to trade-off between precision and efficiency. The schemes are shown to work for diverse matrix types like Laplacian, Toeplitz, and tridiagonal matrices – common structures found in physics, engineering, and other complex systems.

By expanding the scope of problems reachable by near-term quantum algorithms, thanks to more streamlined data handling, this innovative encoding approach represents a major step towards unleashing the real-world potential of quantum computing. The next critical phase will involve implementing and benchmarking the techniques on actual quantum hardware like IBM’s processors. Overall, efficient input loading paves the way for more advanced and practical quantum enhancements.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22331/q-2024-01-11-1226

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