# What is Quantum computing for beginners? The amazing Power of the Quantum World

H Hannan

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What is quantum computing? In recent years quantum computing has gained significant attention. This mind-boggling area of physics is a combination of the principles of quantum mechanics and computer science. While it might still sound a little intimidating, understanding the core basics behind quantum computing doesn’t require an advanced degree in physics. These next 1000 words will explain what quantum computing is simply, breaking down the core essentials into simple terms that anyone can grasp.

## Origins of Quantum Computing

Quantum computing had its initial roots in the 1980s, thanks to the visionary ideas of Yuri Manin and Richard Feynman. However, during this period, it remained a theoretical concept and was often regarded as an implausible notion. While numerous principles of quantum mechanics had gained widespread acceptance among the scientific community and had underpinned various existing technologies like LEDs, attempting to simulate even a small number of particles at the quantum level demanded an immensely greater amount of computational prowess than what was feasible back when the theory was first introduced.

## Quantum computing vs. Traditional computing

While traditional computers, operate using a simple binary language, with a ‘bit’ that can be either a 1 or a 0, in quantum computing, a quantum ‘bit’ or ‘qubit’ can essentially be 1, 0 or both 1 and 0 due to the quantum mechanics property, superposition. This enables a quantum computer to not only do functions and calculations that are impossible for a classical computer but also at unprecedented speeds.

## Superposition and Entanglement

To understand quantum computing it is essential to understand quantum superposition. Don’t let the complex name intimidate you it’s actually pretty simple! In general terms, quantum superposition is the ability possessed by quantum objects, such as particles or qubits, to exist in multiple states at the same time.

Entanglement is another crazy phenomenon in quantum mechanics. The best way to understand this is to imagine two particles, let’s call them Particle A and Particle B, that have interacted in the past and have become ‘entangled’. The law of entanglement means that these particles now have a peculiar relationship between them. This relationship is regardless of the distance separating them. What makes this relationship so incredible is that these particles become essentially linked. When one particle is measured it is instantly possible to know what the state of the other particle without measuring it. It is easy to see how this may be incredibly useful for passing information securely. Entanglement could revolutionize the world of communication and cryptography.

## Quantum Gates

Quantum gates are the fundamental building blocks in quantum computing. These gates operate using quantum bits (or more commonly known as qubits) to manipulate and process information. It does this in ways that are distinct from classical computing. The concept may seem daunting but it’s simple. Let’s first understand classical gates. Classical computing uses information gates to process information. These gates simply take input bits (0s or 1s) and produce output bits based on rules. Some examples of these gates are the AND, OR and NOT gates.

Now switching over to quantum computing, quantum gates are used to perform similar functions. The only difference is using qubits instead, the quantum counterparts of classical bits. Quantum gates hence manipulate the quantum states of qubits, allowing for unique and powerful operations.

An example of a fundamental quantum gate is the Pauli-X gate. This can be thought of as the quantum computing version of the NOT gate. This gate is used to flip the state of a qubit. As seen in action; if the qubit is in the state |0⟩, it becomes |1⟩, and if it is in the state |1⟩, it becomes |0⟩. These gates are used to assemble and complete the complex tasks quantum computers are capable of performing.

## Quantum Algorithms

Quantum algorithms can be thought of a specialised problem solvers, and they outshine their classical counterparts in terms of efficiency. Think of them as tools in a toolbox – some of them include Shor’s algorithm and Grover’s algorithm. Shor’s algorithm, for instance, is used to factorise massive numbers far faster than any classical computer could.

Focusing on Shor’s algorithm, it has the potential to turn the world of encryption on its head. In fact 90% of the world’s cryptography is based on the inability of classical computers to factorise large numbers. With the implementation of Shor’s law, factorising these numbers is incredibly easy, leaving the current cryptography ecosystem incredibly vulnerable.

These quantum algorithms are at the frontier of quantum computing, offering the exciting promise of solving complex problems faster than ever. While the nuts and bolts of these algorithms involve some heavy-duty math, don’t let that discourage you. Grasping the big picture behind them is actually quite straightforward, and it’s a must if you want to get the hang of quantum computing’s foundation. Among the familiar faces are Grover’s algorithm, the expert searcher, and Shor’s algorithm, which we’ve already mentioned, poking at classical encryption. And then there’s quantum machine learning, diving into the power of quantum computing into data analysis. These algorithms give you just a tiny glimpse into the breathtaking potential that quantum computing holds.

## Summary and roundup

Quantum computing is still a developing field of research and still comes with its challenges. A significant hurdle is preserving the incredibly fragile quantum states of qubits, which can easily be disrupted by environmental factors like noise and interference. Researchers are actively working on methods to correct errors and tackle this issue head-on with many companies pouring time money and research into the development, for example, IMB.

Despite these obstacles, quantum computing holds remarkable potential across various domains. It could make a significant impact in fields such as drug discovery, optimization challenges, cryptography, financial modelling, and machine learning. The unique capabilities of quantum computers may lead to a huge amount of groundbreaking advancements. This comes from its intrinsic ability for solving intricate problems much faster and more effectively than classical computers ever could.

The world of quantum computing, with its mind-bending principles like superposition and entanglement, has the power to reshape the entire realm of computing. Although it’s still an evolving field grappling with its share of difficulties, the prospects it presents are incredibly exhilarating. As dedicated researchers and scientists continue their strides in this arena, we can eagerly anticipate a future where quantum computers take on some of our most urgent global challenges.

This article just barely starts uncovering the mysteries of quantum computing, giving newcomers a simple peek into the world of possibilities. While we’ve simplified a few of the theories in this piece, it’s important to recognize that quantum mechanics dives deep and gets complex. Yet, when you grasp those core ideas, you’ll truly start to feel the exciting transformation that quantum computing holds at its core.