What is Quantum superposition? And why is it so amazing?

H Hannan

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Superposition
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Quantum Superposition: How Quantum Physics Defies Common Sense

Quantum superposition is one of the most perplexing and fascinating concepts at the heart of quantum physics. This counterintuitive phenomenon allows particles to exist in multiple states simultaneously, defying all common sense. Superposition is critical for making sense of the quantum realm, but unpacking this weird quantum effect requires letting go of our classical perspectives.

Classical Versus Quantum Reality

In our tangible world of everyday experience, objects occupy definite states dictated by properties like position, momentum, and orientation. For example, a coin spinning on a table has a singular location and spin direction at any instant. But, zoom deep into the atomic scale, and particles behave completely differently.

Instead of definiteness, quantum systems harbour inherent fuzziness – a probabilistic cloud of potentiality encoding the odds of different measurement outcomes. Their properties can’t be specified precisely, only as a probability via the quantum wavefunction. This abstraction encapsulates the system’s possible states and their probabilities.

Bizarre Quantum Behavior

This almost cloud-like wavefunction persists until an observation is made, forcing it to collapse into a single state consistent with that measurement. This means quantum particles can exhibit behaviour impossible classically – like occupying multiple mutually exclusive positions simultaneously through quantum superposition.

Take an electron. Its location around an atom is a probabilistic blur. The wavefunction indicates a 20% chance of detecting it in orbit A, 60% for orbit B, and 20% for orbit C if measured. But until measured, the electron somehow bizarrely occupies all three orbits at once in an indefinite superposition.

Only introducing measurement makes the electron’s state definite by collapsing the wavefunction, in this case into orbit B. The act of observation fundamentally affects the quantum system. This remains true no matter the scale – from electrons to molecules to Schrödinger’s hypothetical cat.

Perplexing Experiments

The double slit experiment provides one of the most mind-bending demonstrations of superposition. When individual photons or electrons pass through two closely spaced slits unobserved, they act like waves, interfering with themselves to create a ripple pattern – proof of travelling through both slits simultaneously.

Yet monitoring the particles to identify which slit they go through causes this wave pattern to vanish. The particles now behave like mundane objects, passing through one opening as expected classically. This exemplifies wave-particle duality – the particles morph based on whether it’s measured.

So in the quantum realm, objects inhabit a fuzzy superposition of states rather than occupying single well-defined states at each moment. Particles can spin in multiple directions, travel via different paths, or exist in multiple locations until pinned down by measurement.

Philosophical Interpretations

The implications of superposition remain philosophically contentious. Does the wavefunction represent an objective reality manifesting all possibilities? Or does it merely reflect the observer’s incomplete knowledge about properties that exist definitively?

Some interpretations take superposition literally – particles actually inhabit multiple states simultaneously. The act of observation somehow mysteriously collapses this multiplicity into a single reality. Schrödinger proposed his cat thought experiment to show the absurd implications of such a literal view.

Other perspectives treat superposition as representations of potentialities, not simultaneous coexisting realities. The wavefunction becomes a mathematical tool for assigning probabilities to measurement outcomes from underlying objective states that remain hidden.

Practical Power for Computing

Regardless of interpretive stance, quantum superposition is an experimentally confirmed phenomenon. Its existence empowers quantum computing, with qubits in superposition representing 0 and 1 states simultaneously. This massively parallel processing allows certain algorithms like Shor’s algorithm to gain exponential speedup over classical counterparts.

Superposition exemplifies the bizarre and unintuitive nature of the quantum realm. Particles exist in probabilistic states until measured. Whether foundational or merely descriptive, coming to grips with this quantum concept remains key to quantum physics’ vast potential.

So while philosophically perplexing, quantum superposition opens the door to new technologies. Its otherworldly qualities require the embrace of quantum mechanics.

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